Argonne Combines Quantum and Classical Approaches to Overcome Limitations in Present Quantum Computing {Hardware}

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Argonne Combines Quantum and Classical Approaches to Overcome Limitations in Current Quantum Computing Hardware


July 12, 2019 — In recent times, quantum gadgets have turn into obtainable that allow researchers — for the primary time — to make use of actual quantum {hardware} to start to resolve scientific issues. Nonetheless, within the close to time period, the quantity and high quality of qubits (the essential unit of quantum info) for quantum computer systems are anticipated to stay restricted, making it tough to make use of these machines for sensible purposes.

A hybrid quantum and classical method often is the reply to tackling this drawback with present quantum {hardware}. Researchers on the U.S. Division of Vitality’s (DOE) Argonne Nationwide Laboratory and Los Alamos Nationwide Laboratory, together with researchers at Clemson College and Fujitsu Laboratories of America, have developed hybrid algorithms to run on quantum machines and have demonstrated them for sensible purposes utilizing IBM quantum computer systems (see proper rail for description of Argonne’s position within the IBMQ Hub at Oak Ridge Nationwide Laboratory [ORNL]) and a D-Wave quantum laptop.

Photograph reveals Dr. Alexeev with a mannequin of an IBM Q quantum laptop. Picture courtesy of the Argonne Nationwide Laboratory.

This method will allow researchers to make use of near-term quantum computer systems to resolve purposes that assist the DOE mission. For instance, it may be utilized to seek out group buildings in metabolic networks or a microbiome,” mentioned Yuri Alexeev, principal challenge specialist, Computational Science division.

The crew’s work is offered in an article entitled ​A Hybrid Strategy for Fixing Optimization Issues on Small Quantum Computer systems” that seems within the June 2019 situation of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Pc Journal.

Issues about qubit connectivity, excessive noise ranges, the trouble required to right errors, and the scalability of quantum {hardware} have restricted researchers’ capacity to ship the options that future quantum computing guarantees.

The hybrid algorithms that the crew developed make use of the most effective options and capabilities of each classical and quantum computer systems to handle these limitations. For instance, classical computer systems have giant reminiscences able to storing enormous datasets — a problem for quantum gadgets which have solely a small variety of qubits. However, quantum algorithms carry out higher for sure issues than classical algorithms.

To differentiate between the forms of computation carried out on two fully various kinds of {hardware}, the crew referred to the classical and quantum levels of hybrid algorithms as central processing models (CPUs) for classical computer systems and quantum processing models (QPUs) for quantum computer systems.

The crew seized on graph partitioning and clustering as examples of sensible and essential optimization issues that may already be solved utilizing quantum computer systems: a small graph drawback could be solved instantly on a QPU, whereas bigger graph issues require hybrid quantum-classical approaches.

As an issue turned too giant to run instantly on quantum computer systems, the researchers used decomposition strategies to interrupt the issue down into smaller items that the QPU might handle — an thought they borrowed from high-performance computing and classical numerical strategies.

All of the items have been then assembled right into a remaining answer on the CPU, which not solely discovered higher parameters, but in addition recognized the most effective sub-problem measurement to resolve on a quantum laptop.

Such hybrid approaches aren’t a silver bullet; they don’t enable for quantum speedup as a result of utilizing decomposition schemes limits pace as the dimensions of the issue will increase. Within the subsequent 10 years, although, anticipated enhancements in qubits (high quality, depend, and connectivity), error correction, and quantum algorithms will lower runtime and allow extra superior computation.

Within the meantime,” in accordance with Yuri Alexeev, principal challenge specialist within the Computational Science division, ​this method will allow researchers to make use of near-term quantum computer systems to resolve purposes that assist the DOE mission. For instance, it may be utilized to seek out group buildings in metabolic networks or a microbiome.”

Further paper authors embrace Ruslan Shaydulin and Ilya Safro of Clemson College, Hayato Ushijima-Mwesigwa of Fujitsu Laboratories of America, and Christian F.A. Negre and Susan M. Mniszewski of Los Alamos Nationwide Laboratory.

This analysis leveraged the computing sources of the Argonne  Management Computing Facility, a DOE Workplace of Science Consumer Facility; IBM quantum computer systems on the Oak Ridge Nationwide Laboratory IBM Q hub; and a D-Wave 2000Q quantum laptop supplied by the DOE Nationwide Nuclear Safety Administration’s Superior Simulation and Computing Program at Los Alamos Nationwide Laboratory.



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